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Archive for the ‘Biomed World’ Category

  • Definition

Computed tomography (CT) is a medical imaging instrument to view cross-sectional image of the human body by using X-rays detectors.

  • Medical Application

The medical application of CT scan is to:

  • Visualise the structures in the chest and abdomen.
  • Diagnose the presence of abnormal condition or disease of the heart, lung, bones and muscle.
  • Diagnose disorders of the central nervous system, more specifically the brain.
  • Evaluate organ injury in cases of trauma
  • Diagnose the presence of lesions such as cysts, solid tumours in different areas of the body (- 2008).

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  • Definition

X-ray is an electromagnetic wave which has a wavelength ranges from of 10 to 0.01 nm.

  • Principle

X-rays can be produced by two different atomic processes; Bremsstrahlung or braking radiation and K-shell emission. (more…)

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source: www.loveforlife.com.auThis review focused on three related studies conducted by Frererei (2006), Tavaneinen (2007) and D’andra (2009), whose correlated the matters released by the MPs; heat, radio frequencies as well as microwaves and its effect on the human health using different indicators of health hazard such as increasing the temperature of the ear canal, the hemisphere brain excitability and the up-regulation of heat shock proteins. Although, all of those studies examined that the matters released by the MP positively correlated with such parameters, they did not end up with a conclusion that the MPs do jeopardize the human health.

 Keywords; mobile phones, heat, radio frequency, microwave, ear canal (more…)

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Virtual Reality

Virtual Reality

By: Sadwika Salain

Haptic aka Virtual Reality is a sense of touch caused by feedback force resulted from interaction with an object. Such interaction may form in three distinction; human to a real object, robot end effector with the real object or human and simulated object.

MA. Sinivasan (1997) subdivided haptic into three areas:

  • Human haptics. In this area, haptic is used to study human sensing and manipulation through touch.
  • Machine haptics. Haptic is involved in designing, constructing to either replace or augment human touch.
  • Computer haptics. On this division, haptic is aimed at generating and rendering the touch and feel of virtual objects using algorithms and associated software.

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Artikel ini telah dipublikasi pada harian online Berita Bali

http://beritabali.com/index.php/page/baca-opini/201403130001/detail/2014/03/13/Korupsi-Alkes-dan-Malpraktek/201403130001

By: Sadwika Salain

Source: www.jogjakartanews.com

Aksi solidaritas atas kriminalisasi dokter Ayu akhir tahun lalu akhirnya berbuntut manis. Tanggal 7 Februari 2014 lalu, Mahkamah Agung akhirnya memutus bebas dr. Ayu cs yang sebelumnya divonis 10 bulan penjara atas tuduhan malpraktek. Meski bebas, ancaman kasus malpraktek masih tetap terbuka bahkan semakin lebar dikemudian hari. Pasalnya, akar permasalahan yang selama ini diwacanakan masih parsial, tidak menyentuh penyebab malpraktek secara menyeluruh. Selama ini, kompetensi dan profesionalitas dokter dianggap satu-satunya penyebab utama malpraktek. Padahal, korupsi alat kedokteran luput dari wacana publik sebagai penyebab potensi malpraktek. Opini ini memberikan gambaran keterhubungan antara korupsi alat kesehatan dengan potensi malpraktek di tanah air.

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 By: Sadwika Salain

Image source: www.cardiachealth.org

Artificial Valves

1         Introduction

Anatomically, the human heart comprises of four chambers—two atria and two ventricles. (Detail of the heart components is shown on figure 1). Physiologically, the heart can be considered as a positive displacement pump that generates blood flow to support systemic and pulmonary circulation. For this purpose, the heart undergoes both contraction and expansion in alternating period. It is estimated that the heart contracts and expands as many as on average 100,000 times everyday, pumping approximately 2,000 gallons of blood (Bender, 1992).

To ensure the blood flows in a forward direction, two valves at each ventricle – one at the inlet – open and shut in a synchronized manner. The four heart valves are:

  • Tricuspid valve : located between the right atrium and the right ventricle
  • Pulmonary valve : located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery
  • Mitral valve : between the left atrium and the left ventricle
  • Aortic valve : between the left ventricle and the aorta

The blood come from the veins, which has less oxygen, enters the heart via the right atrium. After filling, the right atrium then contracts and pushes the blood to the right ventricle through the tricuspid valve. From this ventricle, blood is sent to the lung through the pulmonary valve. In the lung the blood is oxygenated. Furthermore, the oxygenated blood returns to the left atrium then goes to the left ventricle through the mitral valve. The final stage is, the blood is squeezed out from the left atrium into the aorta and other circulatory system through the aortic valve. Detail of how the heart valve is working will be described in the following section. (more…)

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